Interesting Facts about Makrana Marble

Interesting Facts about Makrana Marble

Makrana is a municipal council and a tehsil in the Nagaur district of Rajasthan, India. There are more than 136 villages under Makrana tehsil, making Makrana one of the biggest tehsils in Nagour District. Makrana is famous for the white marble taken from the mines around it. 

Makrana marble is a high quality type of white marble for use in sculpture and building decor. It is mined in the town of Makrana in Rajasthan, India, and was used in the construction of several iconic monuments such as the Taj Mahal and the Victoria Memorial in Kolkata.

Makrana is regarded as the oldest place in India with a marble quarry. Upon mining, Makrana marble is not subjected to any form of treatment, but used in cutting and chiseling straight away. Makrana marble is one of the two calcitic marble varieties in India, with all others being dolomitic. It has two varieties: white and albeta. The quantity of marble reserves in the region is estimated to be 55 million tonnes by the state government. About 120 thousand tones of the marble are produced annually from over 400 mines in the region.

Makrana marble has high percentage of calcium and is therefore resistant to water seepage. The water absorption of Makrana marble is said to be the lowest among all types in India, and the marble is claimed to contain 98 percent of calcium carbonate and only two percent of impurities. 

The different shades of Makrana marble are pure white, white with grey shades and white with pink shades, depending on the level of impurities. The close interlocking property of the marble makes it strong, hard and translucent. It is said to retain its shine and white color for a long period of time

Geology Facts about Makrana Marble

In the Makrana area, marble is found as five steeply-dipping bands. They form part of the Ajmer Formation of the Delhi Supergroup, which is a sequence of sedimentary rocks that was deposited in the Delhi Basin during the Proterozoic. About 1450 Ma (million years ago) these rocks were affected by the Delhi Orogeny, causing the metamorphism that transformed the original limestone’s to marble and the folding that caused the steep dip and the current outcrop pattern.

Types of Makrana Marble

Makrana Marbles splits into various categories according to its design and pattern. The following are the exclusive marbles which are mined and manufactured at Makrana.

Makrana White Marble- Makrana marble is highly used in residential & commercial buildings and numerous temples, mosques, churches, and monuments; it can be used for decorative purpose in houses, hotels, corporate offices and Restaurants, western and Indian sculptures, handicrafts.

Brown Albeta Marble

This marble stone is a calcite stone. It is a milky white marble and also available in grey and panther brown pattern. The stone is available in various forms such as natural blocks, large & small slabs, and regular tiles.

Dungri Marble

Dungri Marble is one of the oldest and finest quality marble of makrana based mines. This stone is widely used in flooring, and wall cladding due to its special qualities like no chemical reinforcement, no color changes, and no pin holes.

Albeta Marble

Albeta Marble is one of the best as well as highly recommended stone for floor designs which gives luxury look to the home. The color of albeta makrana marble is milky white with a brown texture

Notable Monuments and Buildings

Prominent Buildings/Monuments that Used Makrana Marble in their Construction are:

Taj Mahal, Agra, India.

Victoria Memorial, Kolkata, India

Makrana marble was chosen over various other European types in the construction of the Victoria Memorial, after several tests concluded Makrana marble to be superior. Sir Thomas Henry Holland, a British geologist, was given credit for recommending the use of Makrana marble in the construction of Victoria Memorial.

Sheikh Zayed Mosque, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Moti Masjid, Lahore, Pakistan

Dukhnivaran Sahib Gurdwara, Ludhiana, India

Use and Export of Makrana Marble

Marble from Makrana, Rajasthan is exported overseas mainly to the Persian Gulf countries, the European Union, Southeast Asia, Canada, Pakistan and Russia. In India, it is mainly used for handicraft and sculpture work, apart from construction of buildings. Makrana marble was given the geographical indication status in 2015 by the Geographical Indication Registry, Chennai.
content source: wikipedia


Facts about Chhabra Thermal Power Station

Chhabra Thermal Power Station is a 1000 MW coal-fired based thermal power station in Rajasthan. A 1320 MW expansion of the power station is under construction.

Location: Unit 1 to 4

The Chhabra Thermal Power Station is located at Motipura Chowki, Chaabra tehsil, Baran, Rajasthan, India.

This Thermal Power Plant is operated by Rajasthan RV Utpadan Nigam (RVUN or RRVUN), a government-owned utility. It began as a 500 MW power station, commissioned in 2009-2010. The Chhabra Thermal Power Station was later expanded by two 250 MW units (Units 3&4). Unit 3 was commissioned in 2013, and unit 4 in 2014.

Unit 5 and 6: Stage 3

Two more 660 MW units (Units 5 and 6) have a proposed commissioning schedule during the 12th Plan (2012-17).
On Chhabra Thermal Power Station website (March 2012), the company reported the following details regarding toward Stage III.

Also Read: List of Thermal Power Plants in Rajasthan

2163 Bigha land acquired; Section 4 Notification for additional 189 bigha land issued 1570 mcft water (300 mcft from Lhasi dam & 1270 mcft from Parwan dam) allocated by WRD
TOR issued on dated 11.12.09 by MoEF & Public hearing conducted at site on 15.02.10; application for EC submitted to
MoEF on dated 28.12.2010
M/s TCE appointed as project consultant
Presentation for EC has been made on dated 05.07.2011 at MoEF, New Delhi.
Case for Long Term Linkage recommended by MOP & forwarded to MoC

Stage-I forest clearance has been accorded by MOEF to “Parsa East and Kante Basan” coal blocks
Price bids of EPC tenders opened on 10.01.11 & are under examination; orders are in final stage & to be placed after allocation of coal linkage & issuance of Environmental Clearance

Commissioning Schedule – in 12th Plan


Parwan Major Irrigation Project is an interstate project & clearance from MOE&F required.
This project to be expedited by WRD on priority.
EC from MoEF pending for want of coal linkage.
EC from MoEF pending for coal block.
The project received environmental clearance in 2012.

In March 2015 units 5 and 6 were reported as under construction. According to RVUN, unit 5 is planned for commissioning in December 2016 and unit 6 in June 2018.

According to the India government (November 2016), unit 5 was synchronized in October 2016 and commissioned in April 2017. Chhabra Thermal Power Station Unit 6 is planned for 2018, but as of January 2019 there is no news it was commissioned.


In 2017 NTPC signed a non-binding MoU with the Rajasthan government to take over the Chhabra thermal power plant. While the total cost of the plant is estimated to around Rs 150 billion, NTPC was supposed to pay around Rs 50 billion for 1000 MW. 
The Chhabra Thermal Power Station deal however is stuck for political reasons. A non-binding MOU allows the parties to modify the terms later.

Project Details:

Sponsor: Rajasthan RV Utpadan Nigam
Location: Chowki-Motipura village, Chhabra tehsil, Baran district, Rajasthan.
Coordinates: Units 1-4: 24.62092, 77.035439 (exact); Units 5-6: 24.63433, 77.0385039 (exact)

Status and Capacity:

Unit 1 - 250 MW - Operating (commissioned October 30, 2009)
Unit 2 - 250 MW - Operating (commissioned May 4, 2010)
Unit 3 - 250 MW - Operating (commissioned September 14, 2013)
Unit 4 - 250 MW - Operating (commissioned 30 June 2014)
Unit 5 - 660 MW - Operating (commissioned April 4, 2017)
Unit 6 - 660 MW - Construction


Facts about Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Plant

Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Station is Rajasthan's first Super Thermal Power Plant, which is located 27 km away from Suratgarh town in Ganganagar district. The thermal power plant is operated by Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Ltd (RVUNL).

This Super Thermal Power Station has 6 units that can produce 250 megawatts each.


Suratgarh Power Station is located 27 km from Suratgarh -15 km from Suratgarh to Biradhwal on nh15, then 12km in east from nh15.


The Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Station has received a gold shield on 8 August 2004 from Hon'ble President for consistently outstanding performance during the years 2000 to 2004. It also received a bronze shield from Hon' Prime Minister for outstanding performance during the years 2005 and 2006.

Installed Capacity

Commissioning Targets and Achievements

Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Plant has achieved many milestones since commissioning of its 1st unit despite being located at place where climatic conditions are very adverse.

1. Award

Since starting of 1st unit, it is getting awards from government of India consistently for its performance.
For 1999-2000 shield has been given to Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Station  for meritorious productivity.

Also Read: List of Thermal Power Plant in Rajasthan

For year 2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03 & 2003-04 sstps is given meritorious productivity gold shield, awarded by hon'ble President of India Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam on 24-aug-2004. Honorable prime minister of India Dr. Manmohan Singh awarded the shield to SSTPS on 21-03-2007 for performance in 2005-06.

2. Fly ASH Utilization

Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Station has achieved almost 100% fly ash utilization in 2010-11. Working more efficiently auxiliary power consumption has been reduced from 9.16% in 2009-10 to 9.12% in 2010-11. We have also managed to reduce demur-rage hours for unloading of coal rakes by remarkable 81% in 2010-11 from 2009-10. In 2009-10 number of demur-rage hours were 3787 while for 2010-11 it has been reduced to just 708 hours.

3. Mini-Micro Hyde Plant

For financial year 2010-11 there is an increase of 206 % in total generation by mini/micro hydroelectric plants (Under Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Station) from last year 2009-10. Generation for 2010-11 is 67.89 lakh units while generation for 2009-10 was 22.18 lakh units.

4. CSR

Under corporate social responsibility, bus facility has been started from Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Station Township to nearby villages, enabling village children to have quality education in Kendriya Vidyalaya and DAV school situated in Thermal Power Station Township

Awards by G.O.F.
Power Plant Performance

Highlights & Achievements (2010-11)

Environmental Measures

1. 100 % ash utilization has been achieved in 2010-11 resulting in considerable reduction in raw water consumption required for disposal of ash.

2. Disposal of fly ash is ensured through closed containers only

3. Green belt development is being done as per action plan to achieve 33% cover.

4. Fly ash transportation is permitted in closed containers only
Energy Conservation Measures

Switching of cooling tower fans & reduction of raw water consumption through utilization of waste water for fly ash preparation and green belt development.

Strengthening of Power Evacuation System

Commissioning of 400 kv STPS-Bikaner & 220 kv STPS- Bhadra feeders.


Facts about Kota Super Thermal Power Plant

 Kota Super Thermal Power Plant

Kota Super Thermal Power Plant is the first coal based Electricity Generating Power Plant in Rajasthan. At present the total installed capacity of Kota Super Thermal Power Plant is 1240MW.


Kota Super Thermal Power Plant is placed on the left bank of Chambal River in Kota, Rajasthan.

Sanction of Schemes (STAGE-I to V)

 Kota Super Thermal Power Plant

Kota Thermal Power Station is located on the left bank of river Chambal in Rajasthan’s principal industrial city Kota. Infrastructural facilities like adequate water availability in Kota Barrage throughout the year.

Records of Excellence:

Kota Super Thermal Power Station is reckoned as one of the best, efficient and prestigious Thermal Power Station of the country. It has established a record of excellence and has earned meritorious productivity awards from the Ministry of Power, Govt. of India during 1984, 1987, 1989, 1991 and every year since 1992-93 onwards.

 Kota Super Thermal Power Plant
This Thermal Power Station has earned golden shield award from Union Ministry of Power for Consistent outstanding performance during 2000-01 to 2003-04. The Golden Shield was presented by Hon’ble President of India Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam on 24.8.04.

The Power Plant has achieved the distinction of about 100% fly ash utilization during the year 2010-11. An all time high generation level of 9891 MU at an annual PLF of 91.06% was achieved during 2010-11. The achievements made by KTPS during 2010-11 are as under:-

Record Achievements: 2010-11
 Kota Super Thermal Power Plant
Further, it is worthwhile to mention that Kota Super Thermal Power Station managed efficient unloading of coal rakes within the duration as prescribed by the Railways and there by achieved unloading of about 155 coal rakes without any demurrage charges since 19th April 2010.
The Power Station performance is consistently well above the National average as depicted in the operational parameters for last 5 years.

Environmental Profile
 Kota Super Thermal Power Plant
Adequate measures have been taken at Kota Thermal Power Station to control pollution and comply with the norms laid by environment protection act. 1986. Being a power plant, located in the heart of kota city, continuous efforts are made to ensure atmospheric emission of suspended particulate matter within the prescribed limits.

The 180 meter high stacks have been provided to release flue gases into the atmosphere at an approx.

Microprocessor based intelligent controllers to optimize the esp of 99.82% efficiency have been provided.

Adequate water spraying arrangements have been provided at coal unloading, transfer and conveying system to arrest and restrict fugitive emission.

Development of green belt, about 3 lakhs plants of various species have already been planted in Kota Thermal Power Plant and ash dyke.

*Existing green cover area within plant - 90 hect.

*Existing green cover area within ash dyke - 100 hect.

Regular monitoring of stack emission, ambient air quality and trade effluent is carried out.
All the drains in the esp area and boiler area have been diverted to dedicated tanks and the effluent collected is utilized for transportation of bottom ash disposal of the various units.

Ash Utilization
 Kota Super Thermal Power Plant

Fly Ash:

In compliance to Govt. of India Gazette Notification issued on 14th Sept. 1999 for making available ash free of cost, Kota Thermal Power Plant has achieved the 100% Dry Fly ash utilization. The Kota Thermal Power Station signed agreements for dedicated generating units allocations including Construction & Operation of complete dry fly ash evacuation system from each unit in two phases i.e. from ESP to Intermediate Silo and Intermediate Silo to Main Supply Silo near KSTPS boundary with following cement manufacturing companies –

• Unit # 1&2 - M/s. Associated Cement Co. Ltd.
• Unit # 3 - M/s. Birla Cement Works Ltd.
• Unit # 4 - M/s. Grasim Industries Ltd.
• Unit # 5 - M/s. Grasim Industries Ltd
• Unit # 6 - M/s. Mangalam Cement Ltd.
• Unit # 6 - M/s. Shree Cement Ltd.
• Unit # 7 - M/s. Grasim Industries & M/s. Shree Cement Ltd.

Pond Ash:

Concerted efforts have been made towards utilization of disposed fly & bottom ash accumulated in KSTPS ash dykes. The ash is provided free of cost and has been utilized by various small entrepreneurs i.e. Brick-kiln industries, small fly ash product industries, Cement manufacturing Industries and for land filling by National Highway Authority of India in construction of NH-12 and NH-76.


How to Improve the Ranking of Google My Business Listing

When your business has become known to the public, that doesn't mean you stop planning business strategies. To strengthen your business, you can use Google My Business as your business strategy.
Google My Business is a platform from Google where you can provide information about company profiles in detail that will appear at the top or side that is complete with directions maps making it easier for prospective customers to find your company on Google. 

Google My Business will also make it easier for you to create and update listings so that your business appears more prominent.
For business people, of course Google My Business is very useful to promote your business and from the results of your satisfying promotion, you can increase the sales of your business. 

The results of the ranking in Google for Google My Business are based mainly on relevance (Relevance), distance (Distance), and fame / excellence (Prominence). These factors are combined to help find the best match for consumer search results.

For example, Google's algorithm might decide that a business that is farther away from a consumer's location is more likely to have what is searched for than a business that is closer, and therefore ranks it higher than a close distance.


Relevance refers to how well a local listing is in accordance with what consumers are looking for. Adding complete and detailed business information can help Google better understand your business and match your list with relevant searches.


Google can read the location of consumers. So that it will provide a Google My Business profile that is close to consumers in search results. If consumers do not specify a location in their search, Google will calculate the distance based on what is known about its location.

Fame / Prominence

Excellence refers to how well-known a business is. Some places are more prominent in the offline world, and search results try to reflect this in the local ranking. For example, famous stalls, famous museums, famous hotels, or well-known store brands that are familiar to many people also tend to stand out in local search results.
Excellence is also based on information that Google has about businesses from across the web (such as links / articles, and directories). The number and score of Google's review are taken into account in local search rankings: more reviews and positive ratings might increase local business rankings. Your position in web results is also a factor, so SEO best practices also apply to Google My Business search engine optimization.

There is no fee for Google to rank locally in Google My Business. Google does its best to keep the details of the search algorithm confidential so that the ranking system is as fair as possible for everyone.


Benefits of Google My Business for Local Business

Google makes your business easy to find by anyone, anywhere, anytime. If you have ever accessed Google, you must be familiar with the display of search results as found in the picture. 
There are 4 important points that you can optimize to bring up your business presence in the digital world.

Google Search Keywords
Organic Search Results
Business Listings
Google AdWords Ads

Quickly Using Google My Business, you can create or claim free listings for your business. 
The way to make your business appear on Google My Business is to register. Follow the steps until Google will send a PIN to verify your business address.

After the business address is verified, you can fill in all information about the business in Google My Business. Be it business description, tagline, photos, opening hours, email address, website url, customer interaction posting text and images for general information, promos, events and listing your business products.

You can help customers find your business, telling them the story of your business.
Google My Business Increases Local Ranking on Google Search
Google helps local businesses to appear first in search facilities Shown in a box with 3 local business information. Only then will the website list appear below. So this is good news for SMEs.
Let's use it. Immediately register your business, complete the information there and Google will do something to bring up your business.

Benefits of using Google My Business to attract New Customers:

1. Google My Business is Free!

Just use one Gmail account and you can register your business with Google My Business. Google will verify by sending a PIN on your mobile number or through a postcard. Make sure your business address is correct. When it's verified, you can manage and display your business for free. All features and facilities are free. You can manage 100 business profiles in 1 Gmail account!

2. Helping Consumers Find Your Physical Business Address.

Your business will be listed officially on the map (Google Maps). The map is one of the facilities in Google My Business. Everyone already knows how to operate Google MapsGoogle My Business will record the request for this map and present it as statistics for you.

3. Better Display on Google Search.

The appearance when people search on Google is: a list of websites appears as a result of Google Ads, then the box contains 3 companies (this is Google My Business), and below it lists websites that appear organically. This box is displayed interesting by Google. 

4. Google My Business Displays Useful Information.

Google My Business provides information update facilities so that they will quickly appear in search results. Users will know immediately and Google will do something for your business. Users will see your business data including: Operating hours, directions (directions), website address, photos, telephone buttons, business descriptions, posting updates on promos, events and products. 

5. Add Sales Marketing Channels.

Since Google raises local businesses, automatically your business profile in Google is like a store to take advantage of facilities to update post promos, events and products in it to display all your business activities.

6. Getting Insights from Analytical Facilities.

There is a facility called Analysis (Insight) that displays information on the origin of visits, the number of visits, actions taken by consumers.

7. Review Facilities.

Business if more and more discussed positively will create a high level of trust for consumers. Benefit review is to ask your customers to fill it. 

8. Can be accessed using a Smartphone.

You can download the Google My Business application through the Appstore or Google Play. Enough of your hand you can update and manage your business. It should be easier to use.